List of Figures

Figure 1
Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, Ugolino and his Sons, 1865–67 (detail).
Image credit: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Purchase, Josephine Bay Paul and C. Michael Paul Foundation Inc. Gift, Charles Ulrick and Josephine Bay Foundation Inc. Gift, and Fletcher Fund, 1967
Figure 2
Abraham Ortelius, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Descriptio Maris Pacifici (detail), British Library, 009025, Maps.C.2.d.6, 6.
Image credit: British Library
Figure 3
The Hereford Mappa Mundi, c. 1300.
Image credit: © Hereford Cathedral
Figure 4
Pietro Vesconte, Portolan chart of Western Europe and the Mediterranean, with the principal powers indicated by means of flags, Maps for the Liber Secretorum Fidelium Crucis, c. 1320–25, additional MS 27376, ff.180v–181.
Image credit: British Library
Figure 5
Isidore of Seville, Etymologiarum libri XX (detail), MS Latin 7585, 164v.
Image credit: Bibliothèque nationale de France
Figure 6
Rembrandt Van Rijn, A Woman Making Water, 1631, etching.
Image credit: © The Trustees of the British Museum. In the open access versions, the image is shared under a Creative Commons Attribution-​Non­Commercial-​ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) licence
Figure 7
MS Strozzi 150, c. 32r (detail).
Image credit: Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence. Permission granted by the Ministry of Culture. Any form of further reproduction by any means is forbidden for the print versions. In the open access versions, the image is shared under a Creative Commons Attribution-​Non­Commercial-​NoDerivs International (CC BY-NC-ND) licence
Figure 8
MS Plut.40.13, c. 25r (detail).
Image credit: as Figure 7
Figure 9
MS Conv.Soppr.204, c. 96r (detail).
Image credit: as Figure 7
Figure 10
MS Plut.40.20, c. 78r (detail).
Image credit: as Figure 7
Figure 11
MS Egerton 943, c. 63r (detail).
Image credit: British Library
Figure 12
Mermaid, object number 97‐39‐70/72853.
Image credit: courtesy of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University. Gift of the Heirs of David Kimball, 1897
Figure 13
Sirena, Museum of Natural History, Milan.
Image credit: photograph by Andrea Cherchi
Figure 14
My mother. Image credit: the author
Figure 15
Enrico Pazzi, Monument to Dante, 1865, Piazza Santa Croce, Florence.
Image credit: photograph by Jörg Bittner Unna
Figure 16
Ameca, 2021. Image credit: Engineered Arts Ltd