A List of Primary Sources

In Order of Appearance

  1. Machiavelli, Niccolò, ‘Lettera a Francesco Vettori’ (10 dicembre 1513), in Machiavelli, Opere, ed. by Corrado Vivanti, 3 vols (Turin: Einaudi, 1997–2005), ii: Lettere (1999), pp. 294–97
  2. ‘Letter to Francesco Vettori’ (10 December 1513), in Machiavelli and his Friends: Their Personal Correspondence, ed. and trans. by James B. Atkinson and David Sices (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1996), pp. 262–65
  3. Augustine, Confessionum libri tredecim, in Patrologia Latina, ed. by J.-P. Migne, 221 vols (Paris: Migne, 1844–65), 32 (1845), 659–867
  4. Alighieri, Dante, ‘La Commediasecondo l’antica vulgata, ed. by Giorgio Petrocchi (Florence: Società Dantesca Italiana, 1966–68) <https:/​/​dante.princeton.edu/​> [accessed 21 March 2023]
  5. The Divine Comedy, trans. by C. S. Singleton (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975)
  6. Swift, Edgar, and Angela Kinney, eds, The Vulgate Bible: Douay-Rheims Version, 6 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010–13)
  7. Homer, Iliad, trans. by A. T. Murray and William F. Wyatt (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1924)
  8. Tennyson, Alfred, ‘Ulysses’, in The Poems of Tennyson, ed. by Christopher Ricks (London: Longman, 1969), pp. 560–66
  9. Alighieri, Dante, Convivio, ed. by Franca Brambilla Ageno (Florence: Le Lettere, 1995) <https:/​/​dante.princeton.edu/​> [accessed 21 March 2023]
  10. The Banquet, trans. by Richard Lansing (New York: Garland, 1990) <https:/​/​dante.princeton.edu/​> [accessed 21 March 2023]
  11. Homer, Odyssey, trans. by A. T. Murray and George E. Dimock (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014)
  12. Ariosto, Ludovico, Orlando Furioso, ed. by Cesare Segre (Milan: Mondadori, 1976)
  13. Roth, Philip, The Human Stain (London: Vintage, 2000)
  14. Foscolo, Ugo, ‘A Zacinto’, in Foscolo, Opere, ed. by Franco Gavazzeni, 2 vols (Turin: Einaudi Gallimard, 1994–95), i: Poesie e tragedie (1994), pp. 17–18
  15. Saba, Umberto, ‘Ulisse’, in Saba, Tutte le poesie, ed. by Arrigo Stara (Milan: Mondadori, 1988), p. 556
  16. ‘Ulisse’, in Songbook: The Selected Poems of Umberto Saba, trans. by George Hochfield and Leonard Nathan (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012), pp. 492–93
  17. Claudel, Paul, ‘Sur l’Odyssée’ (1947), in Homer, Odyssée, trans. by Victor Bérard (Paris: Gallimard, 1972), pp. 7–9
  18. Augustine, Epistula 138, in Patrologia Latina, 33 (1845), 521–25
  19. Virgil, Aeneid, trans. by Henry Rushton Fairclough and G. P. Goold (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014)
  20. Baudelaire, Charles, ‘Hymne à la beauté’, in Baudelaire, Œuvres complètes, ed. by Claude Pichois, 2 vols (Paris: Gallimard, 1975–76), i (1975), pp. 24–25
  21. Plotinus, Enneads, trans. by Stephen Mackenna and B. S. Page (London: Faber and Faber, 1966)
  22. Augustine, De doctrina christiana libri quatuor, in Patrologia Latina, 34 (1845), 15–120
  23. On Christian Teaching, trans. by R. P. H. Green (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995)
  24. Cicero, De finibus bonorum et malorum, trans. by Harris Rackham (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014)
  25. Horace, Satires, Epistles and Ars Poetica, trans. by Henry Rushton Fairclough (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014)
  26. Seneca, Epistula 88, in Epistles, trans. by Richard M. Gummere, 3 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014), ii, pp. 348–76
  27. Ovid, Metamorphoses, trans. by Frank J. Miller and G. P. Goold (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1921)
  28. Plato, The Republic, trans. by Benjamin Jowett (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2000)
  29. Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni, Oration on the Dignity of Man: A New Translation and Commentary, ed. and trans. by Francesco Borghesi, Michael Papio, and Massimo Riva (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012)
  30. Pindar, Pythian 8, in Olympian Odes, Pythian Odes, trans. by William H. Race (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997), pp. 336–47
  31. Petrarca, Francesco, Triumphus mortis, in Petrarca, Triumphi, ed. by Marco Ariani (Milan: Mursia, 1988), pp. 225–76
  32. Levi, Primo, Se questo è un uomo (Turin: Einaudi, 2012)
  33. If This Is a Man / The Truce, trans. by Stuart Woolf (London: Abacus, 1987)
  34. Plutarch, Life of Sertorius, in Lives, trans. by Bernadotte Perrin, 11 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014), viii, pp. 2–75
  35. Rabelais, François, Œuvres Complètes, ed. by Mireille Huchon and François Moreau (Paris: Gallimard, 2020)
  36. Hesiod, Theogony, in Theogony. Works and Days. Testimonia, trans. by Glenn W. Most (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2018), pp. 2–85
  37. Richler, Mordecai, Solomon Gursky Was Here (London: Vintage, 1991)
  38. Leopardi, Giacomo, ‘Canto notturno del pastore errante dell’Asia’, in Leopardi, Canti, ed. by Franco Gavazzeni and Maria Maddalena Lombardi (Milan: BUR Rizzoli, 1998), pp. 434–54
  39. Augustine, Enarratio in Psalmum 64, in Patrologia Latina, 36 (1845), 772–85
  40. Virgil, Georgics, trans. by Henry Rushton Fairclough and G. P. Goold (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014)
  41. Montale, Eugenio, ‘Ho sceso dandoti il braccio’, in Montale, Tutte le poesie, ed. by Giorgio Zampa (Milan: Mondadori, 1977), p. 351
  42. Benvenuto da Imola, Comentum super Dantis Aldigherij Comoediam <https:/​/​dante.dartmouth.edu/​> [accessed 21 March 2023]
  43. Odo of Cluny, Collationes, in Patrologia Latina, 133 (1853), 517–638, 556
  44. Rimbaud, Arthur, ‘Le Bateau ivre’ / ‘The Drunken Boat’, in Rimbaud: Complete Works, Selected Letters, ed. by Seth Whidden, trans. by Wallace Fowlie (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005), pp. 128–34
  45. ‘The Drunken Boat’, trans. by Samuel Beckett, in Beckett, Selected Poems 1930–1989, ed. by David Wheatley (London: Faber and Faber, 2009), pp. 126–39
  46. Ovid, Tristia, in Tristia. Ex Ponto, trans. by G. P. Goold and Arthur Wheeler (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014), pp. 2–261
  47. Walcott, Derek, Omeros (London: Faber and Faber, 1990)
  48. Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, trans. by William H. Race (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014)
  49. Calvino, Italo, Il barone rampante (Milan: Mondadori, 2012)
  50. The Baron in the Trees, trans. by Ann Goldstein (London: Vintage, 2019)
  51. Melville, Herman, Moby Dick, or, the Whale (New York: Penguin, 1992)
  52. Camões, Luís de, Os Lusíadas, ed. by Frank Pierce (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973)
  53. Augustine, De Trinitate libri quindecim, in Patrologia Latina, 42 (1845), 819–1098
  54. Walcott, Derek, ‘Sea Grapes’, in Collected Poems 1948–1984 (London: Faber and Faber, 1986), p. 297
  55. Rilke, Rainer Maria, The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge, trans. by Robert Vilain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016)
  56. Alighieri, Dante, ‘Guido i’ vorrei’, Rime lii, ed. by Michele Barbi, trans. by Kenelm Foster and Patrick Boyde <https:/​/​dante.princeton.edu/​> [accessed 21 February 2023]
  57. Montale, Eugenio, ‘Delta’, in Montale, Tutte le poesie, p. 125
  58. ‘Delta’, trans. by Samuel Beckett, in Beckett, Selected Poems 1930–1989, pp. 120–21